Questioning is quick, effective method for gathering evidence of learners' understanding of ideas, knowledge and concepts and skills to be applied. Effective questions encourage learners to think more deeply and provide the practitioner with greater insight into the level of understanding of whole groups and individuals. The practitioner can quickly adjust their practice to meet the learner's needs as identified through using effective questioning techniques.
Learners' responses to questions give the practitioner feedback about their level of understanding if the questions are open-ended and formed to elicit informative responses.
In his video Asking effective questions , McComas, University of Southern California Center for Excellence in Teaching, offers suggestions for asking questions that provide practitioners with useful feedback from learners.
A more comprehensive discussion about the types of questions that encourage learners to think and reveal their level of understanding is found in the McComas and Abraham paper, Asking better questions at the same site.
Digital portfolios, or learning journals in which learners record their learning goals and learning experiences provide the practitioner with useful evidence about what learners understand and what skills and knowledge they believe they need to develop.